官方APP下載:英語全能特訓(微信小程序版,支持蘋果手機、安卓手機)
創辦于2003年
UNSV記不???那就記中文諧音“憂安思?!卑?!
  Slow and Steady Wins the Race!
UNSV英語學習頻道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
公眾微信服務號
英語全能特訓(微信公眾服務號)
UNSV英語學習頻道淘寶網店
客服短信:18913948480
客服郵箱:[email protected]
初級VIP會員
全站英語學習資料下載。
¥98元/12個月

Rwanda Makes Own Morphine to Serve Poor Patients

閱讀次數:


VIP會員專享下載:(非VIP會員無權下載!如果想下載,但還不是VIP會員,請點此訂購
下載方式:使用鼠標右鍵(注意是鼠標右鍵?。c擊下面的MP3音頻/MP4視頻鏈接,然后選擇“另存為…”。
MP3節目錄音 MP3節目錄音 
文章原文
同步字幕

Rwanda is aiming to provide free medicine to all its citizens who suffer from pain caused by life-threatening illnesses.

The country is leading efforts to produce the painkiller morphine locally. That would mean the country would not have to depend on costly opioid medicines sold by large companies.

Experts say large drug companies cannot make a lot of money selling low-cost, generic morphine to the poor and dying in countries like Rwanda. Most people in sub-Saharan Africa do not have the money to pay for costly opioids like oxycodone and fentanyl.

About 90 percent of opioids are used by people in the world's richest nations -- where just 17 percent of the world's population lives. Those estimates come from the International Narcotics Control Board, or INCB. Most users of opioids are in the United States, Canada, Western Europe and Australia.

In much of the world, a rise in opioid prescriptions began in 1997, INCB data examined by The Associated Press shows. Since then, opioid use worldwide has increased by three. The rise led to a massive increase in opioid addiction in the world's wealthiest countries.

However, this rise in painkillers only involved costly opioid products that became very profitable for large drug companies, INCB data showed. The use of morphine, which costs far less and is considered one of the most dependable painkillers, remained flat.

Morphine produced by large manufacturers costs, in general, six times more in many low- and middle- income nations than in wealthy ones, the INCB reports. Experts say this is partly because small countries with low opioid usage rates are not in a position to negotiate prices with drug companies.

A major study by the Lancet Commission on Global Access to Palliative Care and Pain Relief recently examined the inequality between rich and poor countries. The study estimated that it would cost just $145 million a year to provide enough morphine to ease end-of-life suffering around the world. Yet millions still suffer without pain medication in the poorest places.

So, a growing number of African countries – including Rwanda, Kenya and Malawi – have begun to make and give out morphine on their own. The efforts generally include cooperative activities between governments and nonprofit organizations.

"Pain is...torture," said Diane Mukasahaha, who leads Rwanda's national effort for palliative care. She told the AP she had seen patients without morphine nearly starve to death because they were too sick to eat. "People should have medication like an American person. We are all human beings. The body is the same."

Madeleine Mukantagara, a 56-year-old nurse, provides morphine to pain sufferers. On a recent day, she walked through fields in a rural area of Rwanda to get to her first patient of the day, Vestine Uwizeyimana.

For 15 years, the 22-year-old Uwizeyimana dealt with severe pain as a disease damaged her spine. She could no longer walk and had trouble even turning over in bed. Her life narrowed to a small, dark room with a dirt floor. Then, one year ago, relief came in the form of locally produced liquid morphine.

"Without this medicine I think I would die," Uwizeyimana said as her nurse arrived. Mukantagara sat on the edge of her patient's bed and the two began with a prayer.

"Now I think everything is possible," Uwizeyimana said. The nurse and patient held hands and prayed again, quietly. Uwizeyimana then closed her eyes.

Another patient of Mukantagara is an 89-year-old woman who has been sick for five years and has been taking liquid morphine for three of those years. "With pain relief I can eat. I can go outside," the patient said. "I can greet my neighbors. I can walk slowly, slowly and go to church."

Like other painkillers, liquid morphine can be addictive and abused. But the Rwandan government has taken control of the supply in an effort to prevent mass shipping of pills -- which helped fuel the opioid crisis in the United States and other countries.

In Rwanda, the drug is only given to the nation's sickest people. And only the supplier of morphine powder makes money -- which prevents mass marketing efforts aimed at expanding sales.

I'm Bryan Lynn.

The Associated Press reported on this story. Bryan Lynn adapted the report for VOA Learning English. Ashley Thompson was the editor.

We want to hear from you. Write to us in the Comments section, and visit our Facebook page.

----------------

Words in This Story

opioid n. a drug that is opium based and used to reduce pain

generic adj. a product that is not sold with the name of the company that produced it

prescription n. an order written by a doctor that says a patient can be given a medicine or treatment

incomen. ?money that is earned by working, investing, or producing goods

palliative adj. relieving pain without dealing with the cause of the condition

churchn. ?a building where Christians go to worship

網友的學習評論(0條):
版權所有©2003-2019 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有權利。未經書面許可,嚴禁轉載本站內容,違者追究法律責任。 互聯網經營ICP證:蘇B2-20120186
網站備案:蘇ICP備05000269號-1中國工業和信息化部網站備案查詢
廣播臺
地区关键词垄断赚钱 黑龙冮11选5走势图23期 福建快三走势图结果 江西十一选五投注技巧 腾讯分分彩怎么玩 内蒙十一选五现在走势图 最准确的彩票预测 湖北11选5开奖查询结果 全天1分快三计划 秒速赛车规律怎么找 浙江6+1开奖结果查询18122